Fabrication of back contacts using laser writer and photolithography for inscribing textured solar cells

Murugaiya Sridar Ilango, Vijay Monterio, Sheela K. Ramasesha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Semiconductor fabrication process begins with photolithography. Preparing a photo mask is the key process step in photolithography. The photo mask was fabricated by inscribing patterns directly onto a soda lime glass with the help of a laser beam, as it is easily controllable. Laser writer LW405-A was used for preparing the mask in this study. Exposure wavelength of 405 nm was used, with which 1.2 μm feature size can be written in direct write-mode over the soda lime glass plate. The advantage of using the fabricated mask is that it can be used to design back contacts for thin film Photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. To investigate the process capability of LW405-A, same pattern with different line widths was written on soda lime glass samples at different writing speeds. The pattern was inscribed without proximity effect and stitching errors, which was characterized using optical microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). It was proven that writing speed of a mask-writer is decided according to the intended feature size and line width. As the writing speed increases, the edges of the patterns become rougher due to uneven scattering of the laser beam. From the fabricated mask, the solar cell can be developed embedding both the contacts at the bottom layer, to increase the absorption of solar radiation on the top surface effectively by increasing light absorption area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-196
Number of pages6
JournalBulletin of Materials Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Back contact
  • LW405-A
  • Laser writer
  • Mask fabrication
  • Solar cell
  • Writing speed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials


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