Fabrication of Nanoscale Arrays to Study the Effect of Ligand Arrangement on Inhibitory Signaling in NK Cells

Guillaume Le Saux, Esti Toledo-Ashkenazi, Mark Schvartzman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Molecular scale nanopatterns of bioactive molecules have been used to study the effect of transmembrane receptor arrangement on a variety of cell types, including immune cells and their immune response in particular. However, state-of-the-art fabrication approaches have thus far enabled the production of patterns with control over one receptor type only. Herein, we describe a protocol to fabricate arrays for the molecular scale control of the segregation between activating and inhibitory receptors in NK cells. We used this platform to study how ligand segregation regulates NK cell inhibitory signaling and function. The arrays are based on patterns of nanodots of two metals, selectively functionalized with activating and inhibitory ligands. Due to the versatility of our functionalization approach, this protocol can be applied to configurate virtually any combination of extracellular ligands into controlled multifunctional arrays.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Biofunctionalization
  • Inhibition
  • Nanolithography
  • Natural killer cells
  • Spatial control of receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology


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