We consider neural network training, in applications in which there are many possible classes, but at test-time, the task is a binary classification task of determining whether the given example belongs to a specific class, where the class of interest can be different each time the classifier is applied. For instance, this is the case for real-time image search. We define the Single Logit Classification (SLC) task: training the network so that at test-time, it would be possible to accurately identify whether the example belongs to a given class in a computationally efficient manner, based only on the output logit for this class. We propose a natural principle, the Principle of Logit Separation, as a guideline for choosing and designing losses suitable for the SLC. We show that the cross-entropy loss function is not aligned with the Principle of Logit Separation. In contrast, there are known loss functions, as well as novel batch loss functions that we propose, which are aligned with this principle. In total, we study seven loss functions. Our experiments show that indeed in almost all cases, losses that are aligned with the Principle of Logit Separation obtain at least 20% relative accuracy improvement in the SLC task compared to losses that are not aligned with it, and sometimes considerably more. Furthermore, we show that fast SLC does not cause any drop in binary classification accuracy, compared to standard classification in which all logits are computed, and yields a speedup which grows with the number of classes. For instance, we demonstrate a 10x speedup when the number of classes is 400,000.