Despite our common sense notion that indicates that feedback sign (positive vs. negative) has a decisive effect on motivation, the vast literature has no clear specifications regarding when and how positive (negative) feedback increases or decreases motivation (e.g. Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). The variability in feedback sign effects can be explained by self-regulation theory (Higgins, 1997, 1998). Specifically, relatively high levels of motivation are induced either by failure under prevention focus (failure to meet obligations) or by success under promotion focus (fulfilling a desire). In two experiments, regulatory focus was operationalised by a manipulation of situational factors (scenarios) and by three measures of individual differences (values, occupations, and the motives for choosing one's job). Results from these experiments corroborated the hypotheses with all the different operationalisations. Future experiments should investigate the possible three-way interaction between situational regulatory focus, chronic regulatory focus, and feedback sign.