We investigate the general properties of lattice spin models with emerging fermionic excitations. We argue that fermions always come in pairs and their creation operator always has a stringlike structure with the newly created particles appearing at the end points of the string. The physical implication of this structure is that the fermions always couple to a nontrivial gauge field. We present exactly soluble examples of this phenomenon in two and three dimensions. Our analysis is based on an algebraic formula that relates the statistics of a lattice particle to the properties of its hopping operators. This approach has the advantage in that it works in any number of dimensions—unlike the flux-binding picture developed in fractional quantum Hall theory.
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|State||Published - 20 Jun 2003|