First Derivative of Right Ventricular Pressure, dP/dt, as a Sensor for a Rate Adaptive VVI Pacemaker: Initial Experience


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21 Scopus citations


Ten patients underwent implantation of a rate adaptive ventricular pacing system with a new pulse generator and lead. The unipolar lead has a steroid eluting tip and a pressure sensor. The first derivative of the signal from this sensor, dP/dt, is determined and the pacemaker rate is varied in response to changes in the right ventricular dP/dtMAx. During implantation, dP/dt values were in the range of 180–720 mm Hg/sec, The autothreshold for pacing at 2.5 V remained unchanged 1 month after implantation (0.065 ± 0.045 msec, range 0.05–2.00 msec) and only slightly increased after 3 months (0.075 ± 0.045 msec, range 0.05–2.00 msec). A significant correlation existed between the dP/dt measured during implantation and the right ventricular pressure measured by telemetry at follow‐up visits (r = 0.93, P = 0.0001). Initial pacemaker programming was performed on the second day after implantation following a short walk and was adjusted subsequent to follow‐up visits according to the patient's subjective assessment and in accordance with the results of exercise tests and Holter monitoring. Exercise and Holter tests did not significantly change initial programming. There was a significant correlation between right ventricular systolic pressure and the rate response setting (r = ‐ 0.66, P < 0.05). During dP/dt pacing, all patients felt well, and eight of these reported an improvement compared to non rate adaptive pacing. The heart rate response to effort and recovery was appropriate. It was concluded that: (1) right ventricular dP/dt is a suitable parameter for controlling the pacing rate; (2) appropriate programming of the dP/dt pacemaker results in a suitable heart rate response to exercise and recovery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-218
Number of pages8
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • closed loop
  • rate adaptive pacemaker
  • right ventricular dP/dt

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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