We report the presence of multiple flat bands in a class of two-dimensional lattices formed by Sierpinski gasket (SPG) fractal geometries as the basic unit cells. Solving the tight-binding Hamiltonian for such lattices with different generations of a SPG network, we find multiple degenerate and nondegenerate completely flat bands, depending on the configuration of parameters of the Hamiltonian. Moreover, we establish a generic formula to determine the number of such bands as a function of the generation index of the fractal geometry. We show that the flat bands and their neighboring dispersive bands have remarkable features, the most interesting one being the spin-1 conical-type spectrum at the band center without any staggered magnetic flux, in contrast to the kagome lattice. We furthermore investigate the effect of magnetic flux in these lattice settings and show that different combinations of fluxes through such fractal unit cells lead to a richer spectrum with a single isolated flat band or gapless electron- or holelike flat bands. Finally, we discuss a possible experimental setup to engineer such a fractal flat-band network using single-mode laser-induced photonic waveguides.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics