Flower Development: Initiation, Differentiation, and Diversification

Moriyah Zik, Vivian F. Irish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


Flowering is one of the most intensively studied processes in plant development. Despite the wide diversity in floral forms, flowers have a simple stereo-typical architecture. Flowers develop from florally determined meristems. These small populations of cells proliferate to form the floral organs, including the sterile outer organs, the sepals and petals, and the inner reproductive organs, the stamens and carpels. In the past decade, analyses of key flowering genes have been carried out primarily in Arabidopsis and have provided a foundation for understanding the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms controlling different aspects of floral development. Such studies have illuminated the transcriptional cascades responsible for the regulation of these key genes, as well as how these genes effect their functions. In turn, these studies have resulted in the refinement of the original ideas of how flowers develop and have indicated the gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-140
Number of pages22
JournalAnnual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
StatePublished - 11 Dec 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiosperm
  • Floral pattern
  • MADS box
  • Organ identity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

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