Focuses of awareness in the process of learning the fundamental theorem of calculus with digital technologies

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This paper brings together three themes: the fundamental theorem of the calculus (FTC), digital learning environments in which the FTC may be taught, and what we term “focuses of awareness.” The latter are derived from Radford's theory of objectification: they are nodal activities through which students become progressively aware of key mathematical ideas structuring a mathematical concept. The research looked at 13 pairs of 17-year-old students who are not yet familiar with the concept of integration. Students were asked to consider possible connections between multiple-linked representations, including function graphs, accumulation function graphs, and tables of values of the accumulation function. Three rounds of analysis yielded nine focuses in the process of students’ learning the FTC with a digital tool as well as the relationship between them. In addition, the activities performed by the students to become aware of the focuses are described and theoretical and pedagogical implementations are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100847
JournalJournal of Mathematical Behavior
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • Accumulation function
  • Differentiation
  • Digital technologies
  • Focuses of awareness
  • Fundamental theorem of calculus
  • Integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Applied Psychology
  • Applied Mathematics


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