Gemmules and elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's concepts and methods in heredity

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Inheritance and variation were a major focus of Charles Darwin's studies. Small inherited variations were at the core of his theory of organic evolution by means of natural selection. He put forward a developmental theory of heredity (pangenesis) based on the assumption of the existence of material hereditary particles. However, unlike his proposition of natural selection as a new mechanism for evolutionary change, Darwin's highly speculative and contradictory hypotheses on heredity were unfruitful for further research. They attempted to explain many complex biological phenomena at the same time, disregarded the then modern developments in cell theory, and were, moreover, faithful to the widespread conceptions of blending and so-called Lamarckian inheritance. In contrast, Mendel's approaches, despite the fact that features of his ideas were later not found to be tenable, proved successful as the basis for the development of modern genetics. Mendel took the study of the transmission of traits and its causes (genetics) out of natural history; by reducing complexity to simple particulate models, he transformed it into a scientific field of research. His scientific approach and concept of discrete elements (which later gave rise to the notion of discrete genes) also contributed crucially to the explanation of the existence of stable variations as the basis for natural selection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-112
Number of pages28
JournalJournal for General Philosophy of Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 10 Jun 2010


  • Blending inheritance
  • Chance
  • Darwin
  • Discreteness
  • Gradualism
  • Mendel
  • Pangenesis
  • Soft inheritance
  • Statistical laws
  • Variations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy
  • Social Sciences (all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Gemmules and elements: On Darwin's and Mendel's concepts and methods in heredity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this