Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and female adolescents, age 13 to 18 years, at intake for treatment. Findings: Gender was not a factor differentiating the youth for cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, ecstasy, inhalant, and amphetamine use. Males were more likely to report hashish use. Females, however, were more likely to report use of prescription drugs, cocaine and heroin. No gender differences were found for binge drinking, driving a car after drinking or being a passenger in a car after the driver had been drinking, selling drugs, deterioration of relations with friends and family, gambling, taking loans or using personal money to buy drugs. Conclusion: Drug use and related behaviour among adolescents in residential treatment does not appear to be predominately a male problem. Further research is needed to understand the role of gender status in relation to what drugs are used and how for prevention, treatment and public health purposes.