Geometry of quantum complexity

Roberto Auzzi, Stefano Baiguera, G. Bruno De Luca, Andrea Legramandi, Giuseppe Nardelli, Nicolò Zenoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Computational complexity is a quantum information concept that recently has found applications in the holographic understanding of the black hole interior. We consider quantum computational complexity for n qubits using Nielsen's geometrical approach. In the definition of complexity there is a big amount of arbitrariness due to the choice of the penalty factors, which parametrizes the cost of the elementary computational gates. In order to reproduce desired features in holography, such as ergodicity and exponential maximal complexity for large number of qubits n, negative curvatures are required. With the simplest choice of penalties, this is achieved at the price of singular sectional curvatures in the large n limit. We investigate a choice of penalties in which we can obtain negative curvatures in a smooth way. We also analyze the relation between operator and state complexities, framing the discussion with the language of Riemannian submersions. This provides a direct relation between geodesics and curvatures in the unitaries and the states spaces, which we also exploit to give a closed-form expression for the metric on the states in terms of the one for the operators. Finally, we study conjugate points for a large number of qubits in the unitary space and we provide a strong indication that maximal complexity scales exponentially with the number of qubits in a certain regime of the penalties space.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106021
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number10
StatePublished - 19 May 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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