A central approach for better understanding the forces involved in maintaining protein structures is to investigate the protein folding and thermodynamic properties. The effect of the folding process is often disturbed in mutated states. To explore the dynamic properties behind mutations, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations have been widely performed, especially in unveiling the mechanism of drug failure behind mutation. When comparing wild type (WT) and mutants (MTs), the structural changes along with solvation free energy (SFE), and Gibbs free energy (GFE) are calculated after the MD simulation, to measure the effect of mutations on protein structure. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is one of the first-line drugs, effective against latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, affecting the global TB control program 2030. Resistance to this drug emerges due to mutations in pncA and rpsA genes, encoding pyrazinamidase (PZase) and ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA) respectively. The question of how the GFE may be a measure of PZase and RpsA stabilities, has been addressed in the current review. The GFE and SFE of MTs have been compared with WT, which were already found to be PZA-resistant. WT structures attained a more stable state in comparison with MTs. The physiological effect of a mutation in PZase and RpsA may be due to the difference in energies. This difference between WT and MTs, depicted through GFE plots, might be useful in predicting the stability and PZA-resistance behind mutation. This study provides useful information for better management of drug resistance, to control the global TB problem.
- wild type
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)