Gibbsian Representations of Continuous Specifications: The Theorems of Kozlov and Sullivan Revisited

Sebastián Barbieri, Ricardo Gómez, Brian Marcus, Tom Meyerovitch, Siamak Taati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The theorems of Kozlov and Sullivan characterize Gibbs measures as measures with positive continuous specifications. More precisely, Kozlov showed that every positive continuous specification on symbolic configurations of the lattice is generated by a norm-summable interaction. Sullivan showed that every shift-invariant positive continuous specification is generated by a shift-invariant interaction satisfying the weaker condition of variation-summability. These results were proven in the 1970s. An open question since that time is whether Kozlov’s theorem holds in the shift-invariant setting, equivalently whether Sullivan’s conclusion can be improved from variation-summability to norm-summability. We show that the answer is no: there exist shift-invariant positive continuous specifications that are not generated by any shift-invariant norm-summable interaction. On the other hand, we give a complete proof of an extension, suggested by Kozlov, of Kozlov’s theorem to a characterization of positive continuous specifications on configuration spaces with arbitrary hard constraints. We also present an extended version of Sullivan’s theorem. Aside from simplifying some of the arguments in the original proof, our new version of Sullivan’s theorem applies in various settings not covered by the original proof. In particular, it applies when the support of the specification is the hard-core shift or the two-dimensional q-coloring shift for q≥ 6.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1111-1164
Number of pages54
JournalCommunications in Mathematical Physics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Mathematical Physics


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