Bacterial polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib], pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugates) have revolutionized pediatric vaccination strategies. The widely used carrier proteins are tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and diphtheria toxoid variant CRM197 protein, DT conjugates being in general less immunogenic. Multivalent conjugates using TT were found to be at risk for reduced polysaccharide responses, whilst multivalent CRM197 conjugates are at lower risk for this, but may be at higher risk of inducing bystander interference, particularly affecting Hib and hepatitis B immune responses. Novel carriers avoiding these issues could enable the further development of pediatric schedules and combinations.
- Carrier-induced epitopic suppression
- Conjugate vaccines
- Hib vaccines