Goal and plan recognition design for plan libraries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This article provides new techniques for optimizing domain design for goal and plan recognition using plan libraries.We define two new problems: Goal Recognition Design for Plan Libraries (GRD-PL) and Plan Recognition Design (PRD). Solving the GRD-PL helps to infer which goal the agent is trying to achieve,while solving PRD can help to infer how the agent is going to achieve its goal. For each problem, we define a worst-case distinctiveness measure that is an upper bound on the number of observations that are necessary to unambiguously recognize the agent's goal or plan. This article studies the relationship between these measures, showing that theworst-case distinctiveness of GRD-PL is a lower bound of theworst-case plan distinctiveness of PRD and that they are equal under certain conditions.We provide two complete algorithms for minimizing the worst-case distinctiveness of plan libraries without reducing the agent's ability to complete its goals: One is a brute-force search over all possible plans and one is a constraint-based search that identifies plans that are most difficult to distinguish in the domain. These algorithms are evaluated in three hierarchical plan recognition settings from the literature. We were able to reduce the worst-case distinctiveness of the domains using our approach, in some cases reaching 100% improvement within a predesignated time window. Our iterative algorithm outperforms the brute-force approach by an order of magnitude in terms of runtime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
JournalACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 23 Jan 2019


  • Conflict Based Search
  • Plan recognition
  • domain design
  • environment design
  • plan libraries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Artificial Intelligence


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