Green Extraction of Graphene from Natural Mineral Shungite

Anastasia Novikova, Alina Karabchevsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Conventional fabrication methods to produce graphene are cumbersome, expensive, and not ecologically friendly. This is due to the fact that the processing of a large volume of raw materials requires large amounts of acids and alkalis which, in turn, require special disposal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new technologies or to refine existing ones for the production of graphene—and to create new, ecologically-safe and effective methods. Here, we utilized physical sonication to extract graphene films from natural mineral shungite rock. From our study of the structure of shungite by Raman spectrometry and X-ray phase analysis, we found that shungite is characterized by graphite-like mineral structures. Transmission electron microscopy images obtained from the processed material revealed graphene films—with surfaces as small as 200 nanometers long and several layers wide. Our green method of fabicating graphene can be widely used in a variety of fields, from electro-optics to ecology, to list a few.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4356
Issue number24
StatePublished - 7 Dec 2022


  • green graphene
  • mineral
  • shungite
  • produce graphene
  • sonication

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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