Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: Standards and prospects

Gideon Oron, Mike Adel, Vered Agmon, Eran Friedler, Rami Halperin, Ehud Leshem, Daniel Weinberg

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    106 Scopus citations


    Water shortage around the world enhanced the search for alternative sources. Greywater (GW) can serve as a solution for water demands especially in arid and semi-arid zones. However, issues considered which include acceptability of GW segregation as a separate water treated stream, allowing its use onsite. Consequently, it is the one of next forthcoming water resources that will be used, primarily in the growing mega-cities. It will be even more rentable when combined with the roof runoff water harvesting and condensing water from air-conditioning systems. Reuse of GW is as well beneficial in the mega-cities subject to the high expenses associated with wastewater and fresh water conveyance in the opposite direction. The main problem associated with GW reuse is the quality of the water and the targeted reuse options. At least two main options can be identified: the public sector that is ready to reuse the GW and the private sector which raises extra issues related to the reuse risks. These risk stems from the on yard use of GW, relatively close to the household location. The main focus of the Israeli guidelines for GW use is on the private and single house. The problem is less rigorous in public facilities, where the amounts are relatively large and the raw GW is relatively diluted. The two main principles adopted for reuse are: (i) greywater can be minimally treated since it differs from the black wastes, and; (ii) no contact exists with the resident around. The aggravated standards are an indication of the sensitivity issues related to the problem.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)92-101
    Number of pages10
    JournalWater Research
    StatePublished - 1 Jul 2014


    • Criteria
    • Greywater
    • Private sector
    • Public sector
    • Reuse

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Environmental Engineering
    • Civil and Structural Engineering
    • Ecological Modeling
    • Water Science and Technology
    • Waste Management and Disposal
    • Pollution


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