Gypsum saturation degrees and precipitation potentials from Dead Seaseawater mixtures

Itay J. Reznik, Jiwchar Ganor, Assaf Gal, Ittai Gavrieli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Introduction of seawater to the Dead Sea (DS) to stabilise its level raises paramount environmental questions. A major concern is that massive nucleation and growth of minute gypsum crystals will occur as a result of mixing between the SO42-rich Red Sea (RS) water and Ca2+-rich DS brine. If the gypsum will not settle quickly to the bottom it may influence the general appearance of the DS by 'whitening' the surface water. Experimental observations and theoretical calculations of degrees of saturation with respect to gypsum (DSG) and gypsum precipitation potentials (PPT) were found to agree well, over the large range but overall high ionic strength of DSRS mixtures. The dependency of both DSG and PPT on temperature was examined as well. Based on our thermodynamic insights, slow discharge of seawater to the DS will result in a relatively saline upper water column which will lead to enhanced gypsum precipitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-423
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Chemistry
Issue number5
StatePublished - 16 Nov 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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