The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) in an Abkhazian community-based sample and its association with age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and place of residence. The study sample was comprised of 542 males with a mean age of 43.9, sd 15.6 years and 463 females with a mean age of 44.9, sd 13.9 years. OA was evaluated for 14 joints of the left hand according to the Kellgren and Lawrence grading scheme. Statistical analyses included prevalence estimation, multiple regression analysis and χ2 tests. In the entire Abkhazian sample the average prevalence of hand OA was 33.6% for males and 35.4% for females. After age 65, the prevalence of hand OA was 87.5% for males and 83.3% for females. No sex differences were found in the prevalence or number of affected hand joints. Statistically significant association was found between the number of affected joints and BMI, but not between the prevalence of hand OA and BMI. Different prevalences of radiographic hand OA were found in individuals from different villages, after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. Additional studies are needed to explore the possible reasons for such differences.