A riddle arises at the Epipaleolithic and Neolithic sites that dot the lower Jordan Valley. The area has no water resources yet it has long been a focus of inquiry into the transition from mobile hunter-gatherer to sedentary agriculture-based cultures. How then is there such clear evidence of life here, and particularly at such a critical moment in human evolution? Keen to unravel this conundrum, a numerical hydrological model was devised to simulate the groundwater flow field within the Eastern Aquifer of the Judea and Samaria Mountains during the transition from the last glacial to the current interglacial. The model exhibits a range of groundwater flow regimes that prevailed in the past, demonstrating that there was once much larger groundwater discharge at these sites.
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