This work examines health, defined in its broadest meaning, in rural China today. It explores the current social distribution of health status, health behaviour and health care and the processes by which these came about. By exploring universal questions in the social, historical and political context of rural China, the authors advance our understanding of the social processes which shape the social distribution of health and health care, and draw policy implications for both post-industrial and developing societies. Using rural China as a case study, three main issues are addressed: The role of ideology, politics and economic processes in shaping access to health and health care for the rural population; The behaviour patterns of lay persons and health professionals and the degree to which they are influenced by specific social context; Patterns of health inequalities and the distribution of health services. The book will be a useful reference for students, researchers and policy makers with an interest in health care in developing as well as post-industrial societies.