Heavy metal phytoextraction potential of native weeds and grasses from endocrine-disrupting chemicals rich complex distillery sludge and their histological observations during in-situ phytoremediation

Ram Chandra, Vineet Kumar, Sonam Tripathi, Pooja Sharma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

86 Scopus citations

Abstract

Sugarcane-molasses based distillery waste is a threat to environment for its safe disposal due to complexation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) containing mixture of organic pollutants. This study revealed that distillery sludge contains not only mixture of complex organic pollutants but also retains high quantity of Fe (5264.49), Zn (43.47), Cu (847.46), Mn (238.47), Ni (15.60), and Pb (31.22 mg kg−1) which enhances the toxicity of sludge to the environment. The major identified organic compounds were benzene, 1-ethyl-2-methyl, benzene, 1-ethyl-4-methyl benzoic acid, 3,4,5-tris(TMS oxy), TMS ester; hexanedioic acid, dioctyl ester; stigmasterol TMS ether; 5α-cholestane,4-methylene; campesterol TMS; β-sitosterol and lanosterol. These compounds are listed under the EDCs also as per U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, the phytoextraction potential of growing native weeds and grasses i.e. Argemone mexicana, Saccharum munja, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum purpureum, Chenopodium album, Rumex dentatus, Tinospora cordifolia, Calotropis procera and Basella alba revealed the high accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb in their root and leaves compared to shoot. This indicated high accumulation and translocation capabilities of these plants. Further, the bioaccumulation coefficient factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) was found >1 for majority of plants for various metals. Thus, this given strong evidence for hyperaccumulation tendency of these native weeds and grasses from complex polluted sites. Furthermore, the ultrastructural observations of root tissues also revealed the deposition of heavy metals at various cellular components without any apparent toxic effects. This indicated the variable adaptive characteristics of these plants growing at a hazardous waste polluted site. Thus, the study given a strong evidence for application of these weeds and grasses as tools for in-situ phytoremediation and eco-restoration of polluted sites.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-156
Number of pages14
JournalEcological Engineering
Volume111
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Distillery sludge
  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
  • In-situ phytoremediation
  • Native weeds
  • β-Sitosterol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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