Hexavalent chromium-reducing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are utilized to bio-fortify trivalent chromium in fenugreek by promoting plant development and decreasing the toxicity of hexavalent chromium in the soil

Sumit K. Soni, Govind Kumar, Anju Bajpai, Rakshapal Singh, Yashi Bajapi, Laxmi, Sudeep Tiwari

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Abstract

Background: Fenugreek is known to have good anti-diabetes properties. Moreover, several studies accounted that the trivalent form of chromium [Cr(III)] also have anti-diabetic properties. However, its hexavalent form i.e., Cr(VI) is known to be highly toxic and carcinogenic to living beings and retarded plant growth even if it is present in low concentration in soil. Many plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are reported to have the potential to reduce the Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil. In view of the above, the present objective was designed to effectively utilize Cr(VI) reducing PGPRs for the growth and development of fenugreek plant in Cr(VI) amended soil, apart from reducing Cr(VI) in soil and fortification of Cr(III) in the aerial part of plants. Methods: The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of Cr(VI)-reducing PGPRs viz. Bacillus cereus (SUCR44); Microbacterium sp. (SUCR140); Bacillus thuringiensis (SUCR186) and B. subtilis (SUCR188) on growth, uptake and translocation of Cr as well as other physiological parameters in fenugreek grown under artificially Cr(VI) amended soil (100 mg kg−1 of Cr(VI) in soil). Results: The aforementioned concentration of Cr(VI) in soil cause severe reduction in root length (41 %), plant height (43 %), dry root (38 %) and herb biomass (48 %), when compared with control negative (CN; uninoculated plant not grown in Cr(VI) contaminated soil). However, the presence of Microbacterium sp.˗SURC140 (MB) mitigates the Cr toxicity resulting in improved root length (92 %), plant height (86 %), dry root (74 %) and herb biomass (99 %) as compared with control positive (CP; uninoculated plants grown in Cr(VI) contaminated soil). The maximum reduction in bioavailability (82 %) of Cr(VI) in soil and its uptake (50 %) by the plant were also observed in MB-treated plants. However, All Cr(VI)-reducing PGPRs failed to decrease the translocation of Cr to the aerial parts. Moreover, the plant treated with MB observed diminution in relative water content (13 %), electrolyte leakage (16%) and lipid peroxidation (38 %) as well as higher chlorophyll (37 %) carotenoids (17 %) contents and antioxidants (18%) potential. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MB can lower the Cr(VI) toxicity to the plant by reducing the bioavailable Cr(VI), consequently reducing the Cr(VI) toxicity level in soil and helping in improving the growth and yield of fenugreek. Additionally, Cr(III) uptakes and translocation may improve the effectiveness of fenugreek in treating diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number127116
JournalJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Volume76
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Bioavailability
  • Cr uptake
  • Plant growth
  • Plant toxicity
  • Translocation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biochemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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