## Abstract

We show that it is possible to get gain without inversion at high frequency in a three-level ladder type scheme driven by a single driving laser. The transition from the ground state to first excited state is driven by a low-frequency resonant laser field. The next excited state lies far above the first one; therefore its resonant frequency can be much higher than that of the lower transition, and hence one should go beyond the most commonly used rotating wave approximation consisting of retaining only resonant terms (slowly oscillating) in the Hamiltonian. We solve the master equation, both analytically (under proper approximations) and numerically, with the full Hamiltonian keeping counter-rotating highly non-resonant terms. We show a dressed state picture explaining spectral features of gain-absorption profiles. Also we present a kind of phase diagram in the plane γ–Λ, where γ and Λ are spontaneous emission rate and incoherent pumping rate, respectively. The whole γ–Λ plane is divided into four areas: gain-inversion, absorption-no inversion, gain without inversion and absorption with inversion. The first two are usual regimes of incoherently pumped lasers, while the last two stem from the quantum interference phenomena. We analyse the parameter areas where such quantum regimes are possible. The exact numerical solution of the time-dependent master equation shows that keeping counter-rotating terms (no rotating wave approximation) gives rise to new spectral features in the form of additional peaks at combination frequencies. Actually the considered system works as a coherent frequency up-converter.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 215403 |

Journal | Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics |

Volume | 53 |

Issue number | 21 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 14 Nov 2020 |

## Keywords

- Frequency up-conversion
- Gain domains
- Ladder scheme
- Lasing without inversion
- Non-rotating wave approximation
- Refractive index modification

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics