Using IL-1/IL-1Ra knockout BALB/c mice, we showed that 3-methylcholatrene (3-MCA)-induced carcinogenesis is dependent on IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses. Patterns of local inflammation and tumorigenicity were similar in wild-type (WT) and IL-1α-/- mice, while in IL-1β -/- mice, tumorigenicity was attenuated and in IL-1Ra-/- mice accentuated. 3-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma cell lines from WT mice developed into progressive tumors in WT mice, while surprisingly, lines from IL-1α-/- mice formed tumors only in immunocompromized mice. 3-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma cell lines from IL-1α-/- mice, compared with lines from WT mice, manifested higher expression levels of "global" surface molecules related to Ag presentation and interactions with immune surveillance cells (MHC class I, B7.1, B7.2, L-selectin, and NKG2D ligands) and were eradicated mainly by CD4+-and CD8 +-dependent T cell responses. Concomitantly, at the injection site of 3-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma cells derived from IL-1α-/- mice, a leukocyte infiltrate, subsequently replaced by a scar-like tissue, was observed. Immune aberrations in NK cell maturation, antitumor specific immunity and killing capacity of effector cells were observed in IL-1α -/- mice, in contrast to WT mice. Thus, we demonstrate in this study the significance of host-derived IL-1α in cancer immunoediting, by affecting innate and specific immunosurveillance mechanisms. Overall, the results presented in this study, together with our previous studies, attest to differential involvement of IL-1α and IL-1β in tumorigenesis; host-derived IL-1β mainly controls inflammation, while concomitantly, IL-1α controls immunosurveillance of the arising malignant cells. Elucidation of the involvement of the IL-1 molecules in the malignant process will hopefully lead to the development of novel approaches for chemoprevention and immunotherapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy