How Are the Different Formulas of the Categorical Imperative Related?

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The article defends three claims regarding the relation between the different formulas of the categorical imperative. (1) On its prevailing reading, FUL gives different moral guidance than FH; left answered, this problem is an argument for adopting a competing perspective on FUL. (2) The prohibitions and commands of the formulas should be taken to be extensionally the same; but FKE adds a dimension missing from the others, gained by uniting their perspectives, namely, bringing the variety of moral laws into systematic unity. (3) The grammatically ambiguous phrase in GMS, 4: 436.9-10 claims that FA alone unites the other formulas in itself.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)395-419
Number of pages25
JournalKantian Review
Issue number3
StatePublished - 8 Oct 2015


  • complete determination
  • equivalence of the formulas of the categorical imperative
  • formula of humanity
  • formula of the kingdom of ends
  • formula of universal law
  • love and respect
  • moral guidance
  • moral knowledge
  • system of moral laws

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy


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