Human-leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) co-existence in Jhalana Forest Reserve, India

Swapnil Kumbhojkar, Reuven Yosef, Yanina Benedetti, Federico Morelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The intensity and frequency of human-animal conflicts has escalated in recent decades due to the exponential increase in the human population over the past century and the subsequent encroachment of human activities on wilderness areas. Jhalana Forest Reserve (JFR) presents the characteristics of island biogeography in the heart of Jaipur, which is a city of 3.1 million people. The leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is the top predator in this newly declared sanctuary of 29 km2. We surveyed people in the 18 villages that engulf this sanctuary. We questioned the villagers' (n = 480) perceptions about conservation. As much as 93% (round figure) of the population has encountered leopards, and 83% were fully aware of its role in the ecosystem. In addition, 100% stressed the necessity of conservation to save the forests and 91% supported the efforts to a wall in the reserve in order to prevent human encroachment. Most of the population is Jains and Gujars, which are communities that believe in non-violence. We conclude that the villagers support conservation efforts. The authorities that manage JFR view the villagers favorably and, as stakeholders, are the basis for continued human-leopard coexistence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3912
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number14
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2019


  • Attitude
  • Coexistence
  • Human-wildlife interaction
  • Jhalana forest reserve
  • Leopard
  • Panthera pardus fusca

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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