Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome caused by biallelic SLC25A36 mutation

Amit Safran, Regina Proskorovski-Ohayon, Marina Eskin-Schwartz, Yuval Yogev, Max Drabkin, Ekaterina Eremenko, Sarit Aharoni, Ofek Freund, Matan M. Jean, Nadav Agam, Noam Hadar, Neta Loewenthal, Orna Staretz-Chacham, Ohad S. Birk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome has been known to be caused by dominant gain-of-function mutations in GLUD1, encoding the mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase. Pathogenic GLUD1 mutations enhance enzymatic activity by reducing its sensitivity to allosteric inhibition by GTP. Two recent independent studies showed that a similar HI/HA phenotype can be caused by biallelic mutations in SLC25A36, encoding pyrimidine nucleotide carrier 2 (PNC2), a mitochondrial nucleotide carrier that transports pyrimidine and guanine nucleotides across the inner mitochondrial membrane: one study reported a single case caused by a homozygous truncating mutation in SLC25A36 resulting in lack of expression of SLC25A36 in patients' fibroblasts. A second study described two siblings with a splice site mutation in SLC25A36, causing reduction of mitochondrial GTP content, putatively leading to hyperactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase. In an independent study, through combined linkage analysis and exome sequencing, we demonstrate in four individuals of two Bedouin Israeli related families the same disease-causing SLC25A36 (NM_018155.3) c.284 + 3A > T homozygous splice-site mutation found in the two siblings. We demonstrate that the mutation, while causing skipping of exon 3, does not abrogate expression of mRNA and protein of the mutant SLC25A36 in patients' blood and fibroblasts. Affected individuals had hyperinsulinism, hyperammonemia, borderline low birth weight, tonic–clonic seizures commencing around 6 months of age, yet normal intellect and no significant other morbidities. Chronic constipation, hypothyroidism, and developmental delay previously described in a single patient were not found. We thus verify that biallelic SLC25A36 mutations indeed cause HI/HA syndrome and clearly delineate the disease phenotype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)744-755
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2023


  • PNC2
  • SLC25A36
  • hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Genetics


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