In vitro incorporation of [Me-3H] thymidine and [5-3H] uridine into human platelets was demonstrated. Thymidine incorporation was inhibited by three specific inhibitors of DNA synthesis: hydroxyurea, cytosine arabinoside and daunomycin. The effect was dose-dependent. Uridine uptake by platelets was found to be inhibited by specific inhibitors of RNA synthesis such as actinomycin D, rifampicin and vincristine, the effect of actinomycin D being dose dependent. The drug also led to a time-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis when preincubated with platelets. The platelet RNA profile on polyacrylamide gel was demonstrated to be similar to that of embryonic mouse erythroblast RNA. Synthesis of all three fractions, 28 S, 18 S and 4 S, was inhibited by actinomycin D. These findings show that human platelets are capable of DNA and RNA synthesis, and that these activities play a role in controlling protein synthesis in these cells. Detectable amounts of DNA have been found in whole human platelets, and in isolated mitochondria derived from these cells. Isolated platelet mitochondria incorporated [3H] thymidine and [3H] uridine into their macromolecules. These activities were inhibited by daunomycin and by both rifampicin and actinomycin D, respectively. These results support the assumption that DNA and RNA synthesis found in intact cell preparations takes place most probably in platelet mitochondria.