A theoretical framework concerning cultural patterns labeled individualism and collectivism is probed with regard to two conflicted societies, Israeli-Jewish and Palestinian-Arab societies. The following three methods were used to examine collectivism/individualism constructs among 1,190 Palestinian and 1,144 Israeli high school students: items that tap values, interest in different domains of history, and attitudes toward conflict resolution. Both groups were found to be more collectivistic than individualistic oriented. However, as predicted, the Palestinians scored higher than the Israeli students on items emphasizing in-group collectivist orientation (my nationality, my country, etc.). The differences between the two groups tended to reflect some subdistinctions such as different elements of individualism and collectivism. Moreover, they reflected the historical context and contemporary influences, such as the stage where each society is at in the nation-making process.