Infant nocturnal wakefulness: A longitudinal study comparing three sleep assessment methods

Liat Tikotzky, Ella Volkovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

Study Objectives To examine the convergence between actigraphy, sleep diaries, and the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) in the assessment of infant nocturnal wakefulness (i.e. minutes awake after sleep onset [WASO] and number of night-wakings [NW]) in the context of a longitudinal study. Methods The sample included 226 families, who were recruited during pregnancy. Data were collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Infants' sleep was monitored at home for five nights using actigraphy, sleep diaries, and the BISQ. Outcome measures included WASO and NW, as well as sleep latency, sleep duration, and sleep onset. Results Trajectory analyses demonstrated that all three methods showed declines in NW and WASO from 3 to 18 months. Statistically significant correlations were found between the three methods at all assessment points for all sleep variables. However, agreement rates (using Krippendorff's α and Bland-Altman analyses) between actigraphy and parental reports were poor. For NW, agreement between actigraphy and parental reports at 18 months was lower than that at 3 and 6 months. Diaries and BISQ showed satisfactory agreement for sleep latency. Conclusions Although the three methods' measures of infant nocturnal wakefulness are significantly correlated during infancy, absolute agreement between these methods is poor overall. The growing disagreement between actigraphy and parental reports (in NW) across development probably suggests that parents become less aware of infants' awakenings, due to the increasing ability of infants to self-soothe. Using both objective and subjective assessment methods seems especially important after the age of 6 months.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzsy191
JournalSleep
Volume42
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • BISQ
  • actigraphy
  • infant sleep
  • longitudinal
  • nocturnal wakefulness
  • sleep diaries
  • trajectory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

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