Introduction: Placental histologic examination can assist in revealing the mechanism leading to preterm birth. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between intrauterine pathological processes, morbidity and mortality of premature infants, and their long term outcome. Neonatal brain activity is increasingly monitored in neonatal intensive care units by amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) and indices of background activity and sleep cycling patterns were correlated with long term outcome. We hypothesized an association between types of placental lesions and abnormal neonatal aEEG patterns. Objective: To determine the association between the placental lesions observed in extreme preterm deliveries, and their neonatal aEEG patterns and survival. Patients and methods: This prospective cohort study included extreme premature infants, who were born ≤28 weeks of gestation, their placentas were available for histologic examination, and had a continues aEEG, soon after birth)n = 34). Infants and maternal clinical data were collected. aEEG data was assessed for percentage of depressed daily activity in the first 3 days of life and for sleep cycling. Associations of placental histology with clinical findings and aEEG activity were explored using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Twenty two out of the 34 newborns survived to discharge. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) or chorioamnionitis were associated with placental lesions consistent with fetal amniotic fluid infection (AFI) or maternal under perfusion (MUP) (P < 0.05). Lesions consistent with fetal response to AFI were associated with absence of SWC pattern during the 1st day of life. Fetal-vascular-thrombo-occlusive lesions of inflammatory type were negatively associated with depressed cerebral activity during the 1st day of life, and with aEEG cycling during the 2nd day of life (P<0.05). Placental lesions associated with MUP were associated with depressed neonatal cerebral activity during the first 3 days of life (P = 0.007). Conclusions: Depressed neonatal aEEG patterns are associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal under perfusion, and amniotic fluid infection of fetal type, but not with fetal thrombo-oclusive vascular disease of inflammatory type. Our findings highlight the association between the intrauterine mechanisms leading to preterm parturition and subsequent depressed neonatal cerebral function early after birth, which eventually may put premature infants at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome.