Inhibitory effects of artificial sweeteners on bacterial quorum sensing

Victor Markus, Orr Share, Marilou Shagan, Barak Halpern, Tal Bar, Esti Kramarsky-Winter, Kerem Teralı, Nazmi Özer, Robert S. Marks, Ariel Kushmaro, Karina Golberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Despite having been tagged as safe and beneficial, recent evidence remains inconclusive regarding the status of artificial sweeteners and their putative effects on gut microbiota. Gut microorganisms are essential for the normal metabolic functions of their host. These microorganisms communicate within their community and regulate group behaviors via a molecular system termed quorum sensing (QS). In the present study, we aimed to study the effects of artificial sweeteners on this bacterial communication system. Using biosensor assays, biophysical protein characterization methods, microscale thermophoresis, swarming motility assays, growth assays, as well as molecular docking, we show that aspartame, sucralose, and saccharin have significant inhibitory actions on the Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl homoserine lactone-based (AHL) communication system. Our studies indicate that these three artificial sweeteners are not bactericidal. Protein-ligand docking and interaction profiling, using LasR as a representative participating receptor for AHL, suggest that the artificial sweeteners bind to the ligand-binding pocket of the protein, possibly interfering with the proper housing of the native ligand and thus impeding protein folding. Our findings suggest that these artificial sweeteners may affect the balance of the gut microbial community via QS-inhibition. We, therefore, infer an effect of these artificial sweeteners on numerous molecular events that are at the core of intestinal microbial function, and by extension on the host metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9863
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume22
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2021

Keywords

  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Dysbiosis
  • Gut microbiota
  • Normobiosis
  • Quorum sensing

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