Interactions between encoding and retrieval in the domain of sequence-learning

Amotz Perlman, Joseph Tzelgov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


In this article, the authors propose to characterize sequence learning in terms of automatic versus nonautomatic processing and to apply this contrast independently to knowledge acquisition and retrieval. In several experiments of sequence learning, automaticity of both the acquisition and retrieval of the acquired knowledge was independently assessed. It was found that the sequence learning order can be demonstrated under all combinations of knowledge acquisition and retrieval. In particular, at least in the simple sequences the authors used, this applies in cases in which both the acquisition and the retrieval of knowledge are strictly automatic - that is, when neither is required for the task nor beneficial to deliberate behavior. The proposed framework has implications for the notion of sequence learning and the investigation of learning in general.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-130
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2006


  • Automaticity
  • Implicit learning
  • Mode of acquisition
  • Mode of retrieval
  • Sequence learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language


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