Prostaglandins (PGs) play a major role during implantation and labor, and their level is regulated by various cytokines. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a known mediator of prostaglandin E (PGE) production in various cell types, including endothelial, amniotic, and endometrial cells; however, its role in the regulation of PGE production in the trophoblast cells is yet unknown. As IL-1 and FGE are both known to be synthesized in the human trophoblast cells, we examined the possibility that IL-1 regulates PG production in human trophoblast cells. To this end, use was made of first and third trimester trophoblast cells, obtained from first trimester terminations of pregnancies and elective cesarean sections. The trophoblast cells were separated by trypsin degradation and fractionation on Percoll gradients, and cultured for 18 h under serum-free conditions in the absence or presence of IL-1 (10 ng/mL). IL-1 induced a 5-fold increase in PGE production, a response that was cell density, time, and dose dependent. IL-1-induced PGE biosynthesis was prevented in the presence of either IL-1 receptor antagonist or the soluble IL-1 receptor, suggesting a receptor-mediated response. Significantly, de nero production of PGE by trophoblast cells in the absence of IL-1 was also markedly (50%) reduced by either the IL-1 receptor antagonist or the soluble IL-1 receptor, further supporting the notion that IL-1 is involved in PGE synthesis even under basal conditions. Transforming growth factor-β1, a putative modulator of the effects of IL-1, significantly attenuated IL-1- stimulated PGE production, supporting the possibility that transforming growth factor-β1 may serve as a regulator of the effects of IL-1 in trophoblast cells. These observations suggest a pivotal role of IL-1 in the regulation of PGE economy by trophoblast cells. As trophoblast cells are in intimate contact with maternal cells, understanding the regulation of PGE levels may explain crucial processes at the fete-maternal interface, including implantation of the developing blastocyst, immunosurveilance, and the initiation of labor.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical