International reserves and swap lines: Substitutes or complements?

Joshua Aizenman, Yothin Jinjarak, Donghyun Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Developing Asia experienced a sharp surge in foreign currency reserves prior to the 2008-9 crisis. The global crisis has been associated with an unprecedented rise of swap agreements between central banks of larger economies and their counterparts in smaller economies. We explore whether such swap lines can reduce the need for reserve accumulation. The evidence suggests that there is only a limited scope for swaps to substitute for reserves. The selectivity of the swap lines indicates that only countries with significant trade and financial linkages can expect access to such ad hoc arrangements, on a case by case basis. Moral hazard concerns suggest that the applicability of these arrangements will remain limited. However, deepening swap agreements and regional reserve pooling arrangements may weaken the precautionary motive for reserve accumulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5-18
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Review of Economics and Finance
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Asia
  • Dollar standard
  • Reserves
  • Swaps
  • Trade and financial linkages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Finance
  • Economics and Econometrics


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