Involvement of lysine residues in the gating of the ryanodine receptor/Ca2+-release channel of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum

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In this study, the modification of skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RyR)/Ca2+-release channel with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3,-diazole (Nbd-Cl) demonstrates that lysyl residues are involved in the channel gating. Nbd-Cl was found to have a dual effect: stimulation and inhibition of ryanodine binding and single channel activities. Nbd-Cl, in a time-dependent manner, first stimulated and subsequently inhibited ryanodine binding to both membrane-bound and purified RyR. Incubation of sacroplasmic reticulum membranes with Nbd-Cl for 5-20 s resulted in enhanced ryanodine-binding activity by 2-4-fold due, to an increased binding affinity by about tenfold, with no effect on the total binding sites (B(max)). However, under prolonged incubation (5-20 min), Nbd-Cl strongly inhibited ryanodine binding by decreasing the B(max) with no effect on the binding affinity. Similar effects of stimulation and inhibition by Nbd-Cl were obtained with single channel activity of RyR reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer. Nbd-Cl initially (within a few seconds) activated the channel to a highly open state, then (within a few minutes) inactivated it to the completely closed state. Nbd-Cl-modified protein, as assayed by ryanodine binding or single channel activities, was stable against thiolysis by dilhiothreitol, suggesting Nbd-Cl modification of lysyl residues. Evidence from absorption and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra also demonstrated that lysyl residues in RyR were modified by Nbd-Cl. Spectrophotometric data were used to estimate a ratio of up to 1 mol Nbd bound/mol RyR (tetramer) and up to 4 mol Nbd bound per mol RyR (tetramer) for Nbd-Cl stimulated and inhibited RyR activities, respectively. The results clearly indicate the involvement of two classes of lysyl residues in RyR activity. Modification by Nbd-Cl of the fast-reacting group led to stimulation of ryanodine binding and single channel activities, while modification of the slow-reacting group resulted in inhibition of these activities. Thus, the involvement of lysine residues in the gating of the RyR channel is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)955-962
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1997


  • 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole
  • Calcium-release channel
  • Ryanodine receptor
  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum


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