Iron oxides stimulate sulfate-driven anaerobic methane oxidation in seeps

Orit Sivan, Gilad Antler, Alexandra V. Turchyn, Jeffrey J. Marlow, Victoria J. Orphan

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111 Scopus citations


Seep sediments are dominated by intensive microbial sulfate reduction coupled to the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Through geochemical measurements of incubation experiments with methane seep sediments collected from Hydrate Ridge, we provide insight into the role of iron oxides in sulfate-driven AOM. Seep sediments incubated with 13C-labeled methane showed cooccurring sulfate reduction, AOM, and methanogenesis. The isotope fractionation factors for sulfur and oxygen isotopes in sulfate were about 40%o and 22%0 respectively, reinforcing the difference between microbial sulfate reduction in methane seeps versus other sedimentary environments (for example, sulfur isotope fractionation above 60%0 in sulfate reduction coupled to organic carbon oxidation or in diffusive sedimentary sulfate-methane transition zone). The addition of hematite to these microcosm experiments resulted in significant microbial iron reduction as well as enhancing sulfate-driven AOM. The magnitude of the isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in sulfate from these incubations was lowered by about 50%, indicating the involvement of iron oxides during sulfate reduction in methane seeps. The similar relative change between the oxygen versus sulfur isotopes of sulfate in all experiments (with and without hematite addition) suggests that oxidized forms of iron, naturally present in the sediment incubations, were involved in sulfate reduction, with hematite addition increasing the sulfate recycling or the activity of sulfur-cycling microorganisms by about 40%. These results highlight a role for natural iron oxides during bacterial sulfate reduction in methane seeps not only as nutrient but also as stimulator of sulfur recycling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E4139-E4147
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number40
StatePublished - 7 Oct 2014


  • Anaerobic respiration
  • Anme archaea
  • Deep-sea
  • Methanotrophy
  • Redox

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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