Is the Free Locally Convex Space L(X) Nuclear?

Arkady Leiderman, Vladimir Uspenskij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Given a class P of Banach spaces, a locally convex space (LCS) E is called multi-P if E can be isomorphically embedded into a product of spaces that belong to P. We investigate the question whether the free locally convex space L(X) is strongly nuclear, nuclear, Schwartz, multi-Hilbert or multi-reflexive. If X is a Tychonoff space containing an infinite compact subset then, as it follows from the results of Außenhofer (Topol Appl 134:90–102, 2007), L(X) is not nuclear. We prove that for such X the free LCS L(X) has the stronger property of not being multi-Hilbert. We deduce that if X is a k-space, then the following properties are equivalent: (1) L(X) is strongly nuclear; (2) L(X) is nuclear; (3) L(X) is multi-Hilbert; (4) X is countable and discrete. On the other hand, we show that L(X) is strongly nuclear for every projectively countable P-space (in particular, for every Lindelöf P-space) X. We observe that every Schwartz LCS is multi-reflexive. It is known that if X is a kω-space, then L(X) is a Schwartz LCS (Außenhofer et al. in Stud Math 181(3):199–210, 2007), hence L(X) is multi-reflexive. We show that for every first-countable paracompact (in particular, for every metrizable) space X the converse is true, so L(X) is multi-reflexive if and only if X is a kω-space, equivalently if X is a locally compact and σ-compact space. Similarly, we show that for any first-countable paracompact space X the free abelian topological group A(X) is a Schwartz group if and only if X is a locally compact space such that the set X(1) of all non-isolated points of X is σ-compact.

Original languageEnglish
Article number241
JournalMediterranean Journal of Mathematics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • Free locally convex space
  • Hilbert space
  • nuclear locally convex space
  • reflexive Banach space
  • Schwartz locally convex space

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Mathematics


Dive into the research topics of 'Is the Free Locally Convex Space L(X) Nuclear?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this