This article examines the tense relations between religious and secular in Israel and the prospects for what has been described by different observers as a "culture war." Specifically, the consequences and implication of the challenges to church-state arrangements by social, economic, and demographic changes, and growing religious-secular tensions are studied. The empirical investigation of these issues relies on a survey (n = 508) of a representative, random sample of the adult Jewish population in Israel. Research findings indicate that the culture war scenario exaggerates the actual state of affairs because secularism in Israel is lacking coherence and commitment and alternatives that circumvent conflict are available. Rather than a culture war between the religious and secular camps in Israel, different battles are taking place, waged in different realms with different constituencies, tactics, strategies, and levels of commitment whose combined outcome is yet to be determined.