Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


From a religion that focused on sacrifices in the Temple of Jerusalem, Judaism emerged as a religion that required the implementation of religious laws by all Jews in their daily life. New patterns of Jewish identity in the nineteenth century involved a decline in religious observance and modifications in the synagogue services that represented accommodations to non-Jewish society. The patterns of religious observance today in the two largest Jewish communities, those of the United States and Israel, are broadly similar, but they differ in their religious affiliations and identities. Ultra-Orthodox Jews, whose numbers have increased considerably in recent decades, present a strong contrast with the secularized pattern of the majority.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780080970875
ISBN (Print)9780080970868
StatePublished - 26 Mar 2015


  • America
  • Covenant
  • Denominations
  • Diaspora
  • Fundamentalism
  • Identity
  • Israel
  • Monotheism
  • Nationality
  • Rabbinical
  • Religious
  • Secularization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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