Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

Gidon Eshel, Alon Shepon, Tamar Makov, Ron Milo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

297 Scopus citations

Abstract

Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion - that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories - is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-toimplement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11996-12001
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume111
Issue number33
DOIs
StatePublished - 19 Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Food impact
  • Foodprint
  • Geophysics of agriculture
  • Multimetric analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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