Unrecognized laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) poses a significant hazard to otolaryngologists. However, the changing manifestations of TB in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can make its diagnosis difficult. In our population of 146 patients with TB involving the head and neck, HIV infection was present in 70 cases (48%). The prevalence of laryngeal TB in this population was 5.5% (8 patients). Concomitant HIV infection was present in 2 (25%) of 8 patients with laryngeal TB. A delay in the diagnosis of laryngeal TB occurred in 100% of patients with HIV infection, compared with 17% of non-HIV-infected patients (P = .055). The cause of the delayed diagnosis was multifactorial, mainly the presence of multiple confounding variables and the carcinoma-like appearance of the laryngeal TB lesions in HIV-infected patients. To reduce risk for transmission of TB to health care providers, a high level of suspicion must be present for all patients with laryngeal lesions, especially these with HIV infection.