Laser-induced graphene-based electrochemical biosensors for environmental applications: a perspective

Vikram P. Wanjari, A. Sudharshan Reddy, Siddhartha P. Duttagupta, Swatantra P. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Biosensors are miniaturized devices that provide the advantage of in situ and point-of-care monitoring of analytes of interest. Electrochemical biosensors use the mechanism of oxidation–reduction reactions and measurement of corresponding electron transfer as changes in current, voltage, or other parameters using different electrochemical techniques. The use of electrochemically active materials is critical for the effective functioning of electrochemical biosensors. Laser-induced graphene (LIG) has garnered increasing interest in biosensor development and improvement due to its high electrical conductivity, specific surface area, and simple and scalable fabrication process. The effort of this perspective is to understand the existing classes of analytes and the mechanisms of their detection using LIG-based biosensors. The manuscript has highlighted the potential use of LIG, its modifications, and its use with various receptors for sensing various environmental pollutants. Although the conventional graphene-based sensors effectively detect trace levels for many analytes in different applications, the chemical and energy-intensive fabrication and time-consuming processes make it imperative to explore a low-cost and scalable option such as LIG for biosensors production. The focus of these potential biosensors has been kept on detection analytes of environmental significance such as heavy metals ions, organic and inorganic compounds, fertilizers, pesticides, pathogens, and antibiotics. The use of LIG directly as an electrode, its modifications with nanomaterials and polymers, and its combination with bioreceptors such as aptamers and polymers has been summarized. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis has also been done to understand the viability of incorporating LIG-based electrochemical biosensors for environmental applications. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42643-42657
Number of pages15
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume30
Issue number15
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Biorecognition elements
  • Detection mechanisms
  • Electrochemical analysis
  • Electrochemical biosensors
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Laser-induced graphene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Environmental Chemistry

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