Laser produced functionally graded tungsten carbide coatings on M2 high-speed tool steel

M. Riabkina-Fishman, E. Rabkin, P. Levin, N. Frage, M. P. Dariel, A. Weisheit, R. Galun, B. L. Mordike

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The objective of the investigation was to produce functionally graded, carbide alloyed multilayer coatings on M2 high-speed steel by laser alloying with direct injection of WC powder into the melt pool. Single layer coatings with a wide alloying range corresponding to 12-58 wt.% W and 1.3-4.3 wt.% C, respectively, were produced by varying laser beam power and beam traverse velocity. Depending on the alloying degree, four different types of structures were observed in laser alloyed coatings; they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Multiple laser alloying with beam power decreasing at each successive stage was used for producing a triple-layer coating with tungsten content increasing from layer to layer and reaching 75 wt.% in the upper layer. The observed hardness was in the 1100-1200 HV range for single layer coatings with 40-50% W and as high as 1600 HV in the upper layer of a triple coating with 75% W. The coating with 58 wt.% W showed wear resistance five times as high as compared with the unalloyed laser-melted M2 steel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-114
Number of pages9
JournalMaterials Science & Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing
Issue number1
StatePublished - 15 Apr 2001


  • FGM
  • Laser alloying
  • Laser cladding
  • WC functionally graded coatings


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