Lead fixation mechanism impacts outcome of transvenous lead extraction: data from the European Lead Extraction ConTRolled Registry

Nir Levi, Maria Grazia Bongiorni, Moshe Rav Acha, Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Charles Kennergren, Angelo Auricchio, Aldo Pietro Maggioni, Christopher A. Rinaldi, Eyal Nof, Michael Ilan, Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Jean Claude Deharo, Christophe Leclercq, Michael Glikson, Yoav Michowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Aims: The aims of this study is to characterize the transvenous lead extraction (TLE) population with active (A) compared with passive fixation (PFix) leads and to compare the safety, efficacy, and ease of extracting active fixation (AFix) compared with PFix right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) leads. Methods and results: The European Lead Extraction ConTRolled Registry (ELECTRa) was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups; those with only AFix, only PFix, and combined Fix leads. Three outcomes were defined. Difficult extraction, complete radiological, and clinical success. Multivariate model was used to analyse the independent effect of Fix mechanism on these outcomes. The study included 2815 patients, 1456 (51.7%) with only AFix leads, 982 (34.9%) with only PFix leads, and 377 (13.4%) with combined Fix leads. Patients with AFix leads were younger with shorter lead dwelling time. Infection was the leading cause for TLE among the combined Fix group with lowest rates among AFix group. No difference in complications rates was noted between patients with only AFix vs. PFix leads. Overall, there were 1689 RA (1046 AFix and 643 PFix) and 2617 RV leads (1441 AFix and 1176 PFix). Multivariate model demonstrated that PFix is independently associated with more difficult extraction for both RA and RV leads, lower radiological success in the RA but has no effect on clinical success. Conclusion: Mechanism of Fix impact the ease of TLE of RA and RV leads and rates of complete radiological success in the RA but not clinical success. These findings should be considered during implantation and TLE procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817-827
Number of pages11
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac implantable electronic device
  • Lead extraction
  • Lead fixation
  • Registry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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