Lead-Free Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Challenges, Applications, and Future Aspects

S. Ghosh, B. Pradhan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

87 Scopus citations


Lead halide perovskite materials have shown strong promise in energy harvesting and generation over the past five years. However, their poor ambient stability and lead toxicity issues hinder optoelectronic applications. In the quest for alternatives, metal halide perovskites with lower toxicity and more stable metals have recently emerged. The divalent Pb 2+ could be replaced with isoelectronic Sn 2+ , but Sn 2+ tends to oxidize rapidly in presence of air to Sn 4+ , forming a defect in the structure. However, Sn 2+ -based perovskites have been stabilized in 2D structures. Recently Sn 4+ based halide perovskites nanocrystals with have been reported with poor luminescence. The replacement of Pb 2+ with isoelectronic trivalent elements (Sb 3+ , Bi 3+ ) results in A 3 B 2 X 9 type defect-order perovskite structure, which shows promises for optoelectronic applications. The perovskite nanocrystals of Sb, Bi have been reported in the form of dimers and layered structures. In addition to these, double perovskites, where two divalent Pb 2+ are replaced with a monovalent and a trivalent cation have been reported very recently. In this Focus Review, we give a brief summary of different non-lead perovskite nanocrystals starting from synthesis, characterization, stability, properties to applications, along with potential future directions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)300-312
Number of pages13
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • LEDs
  • exciton dynamics
  • lead-free
  • perovskites
  • solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Lead-Free Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Challenges, Applications, and Future Aspects'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this