Lessons learned from the continuous glucose monitoring metrics in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes under COVID-19 lockdown

Avivit Brener, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch, Marianna Rachmiel, Noa Levek, Galia Barash, Orit Pinhas-Hamiel, Yael Lebenthal, Zohar Landau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims: Billions of people have been under lockdown in an attempt to prevent COVID-19 spread. Lifestyle changes during lockdown could lead to deterioration of glycemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the glycemic control of pediatric patients with T1D. Methods: This observational real-life study from the AWeSoMe Group assessed continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics of 102 T1D patients (52.9% males, mean age 11.2 ± 3.8 years, mean diabetes duration 4.2 ± 3.8 years) who used Dexcom G5. The data were accessed without any interface between patients, caregivers, and the diabetes team. Study variables from CGM metrics were: mean glucose level, time-in-range (TIR, 70–180 mg/dL; 3.9–10 mmol/L), hypoglycemia (< 54 mg/dL; < 3 mmol/L), hyperglycemia (> 250 mg/dL; > 13.3 mmol/L), coefficient of variation (CV), and time CGM active before and during lockdown. Delta-variable = lockdown variable minus before-lockdown variable. Results: The mean TIR was 60.9 ± 14.3% before lockdown, with no significant change during lockdown (delta-TIR was 0.9 ± 7.9%). TIR during lockdown was significantly correlated with TIR before lockdown (r = 0.855, P < 0.001). Patients with improved TIR (delta-TIR > 3%) were significantly older than patients with stable or worse TIR (P = 0.028). Children aged < 10 years had a significantly higher CV before lockdown and during lockdown than children aged ≥ 10 years (P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, respectively). Among children aged < 10 years, a multiple linear regression model revealed associations of age and lower socioeconomic cluster with delta-TIR (F = 4.416, P = 0.019) and with delta-mean glucose (F = 4.459, P = 0.018). Conclusions: CGM metrics in pediatric patients with T1D were relatively stable during a nationwide lockdown. Intervention plans should focus on younger patients with lower socioeconomic position.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1511-1517
Number of pages7
JournalActa Diabetologica
Volume57
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2020

Keywords

  • Ambulatory glucose profile
  • COVID-19 lockdown
  • Children and adolescents
  • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics
  • Type 1 diabetes

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