Level optimization of PAM-4 transmission with signal-dependent noise

Gilad Katz, Eduard Sonkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


A level optimization method for the 4-level pulse-amplitude modulation format is proposed. This optimization method is applicable to signal-dependent noise conditions such as the relative intensity noise and amplified spontaneous noise. The proposed optimization was verified by simulation results and an experimental demonstration at 53 Gbaud, showing an improvement of 4 dB.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8579524
JournalIEEE Photonics Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • ASE.
  • PAM-4
  • RIN
  • data center
  • signal-dependent noise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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